The main focus here is to study the underlying theoretical basis of traditional medicine. The questions to be answered concern the theoretical concepts of traditional medicine, whether adequate research has been undertaken in the field? the various frameworks of traditional medicine and how they are differentiated from other dimensions of medicine as a whole? Efforts so far undertaken to compile related terminology, as well as the usage of the Terminology to promote traditional medicine findings is yet another point of concern in this sub-section.

Any school of traditional medicine considers the origin of medical products as being three. These include plant, animal and mineral medicines. The questions of what types of medicinal products are made from a combination of or an individual application of either one of the three origins? what sorts of diseases are these medicines prescribed for? what tool(s) and/or process(es) are applied in their making? What are the various phases and processes applied in the making of traditional medicines? are considered here.

Treatment in traditional medicine is not always of a medicinal nature. Treatment comprises spiritual and material methods. This theme focuses on the various processes of treating a patient in traditional medicine, i.e. cauterizing, tattooing, bone-setting, etc. These methods do not involve any medicinal intake(s).

What are the different diagnosis methods applied in traditional medicine? It is quite obvious that treatment is not possible in the absence of diagnosis. It is noteworthy that diagnosis is a process requiring considerable skills in traditional medicine. Some medicines are treatment-specific (they are prescribed to cure a certain organ). Various approaches to treatment, classification of diseases, and classification methods in various schools of traditional medicine are topics worth considering under this sub-section.

Similar to other medical practices, traditional medicine uses varieties of tools for diagnosis. These include tools for bone-setting, dentistry, means of ritual treatment practices, etc. This sub-section calls for research into the identification, nature, type, usage and efficiency of related tools.